Employment and income
Employment is linked to the fundamental causes of health inequality – the unequal distribution of income, wealth and power. Increasing the quality and quantity of work can help reduce health inequalities. The availability of good jobs lies at the heart of inclusive economic growth and the alleviation of poverty.
Good quality employment can have positive influences on an individual’s health and wellbeing. Earnings from paid employment can provide access to a good standard of living and being in work is linked to a positive sense of wellbeing. People who are not working have a higher risk of poor physical and mental health, have fewer social connections and are less active on average. Long-term unemployment is particularly bad for health, with the effects lasting for many years.
People in more disadvantaged socioeconomic groups are at higher risk of unemployment and, if employed, of poor working conditions. Therefore, poor quality jobs are an issue for health inequalities as they are concentrated at the lower end of the social gradient.
There are a number of ways in which the nature of work can adversely affect health: through adverse physical conditions of work; adverse psychosocial conditions at work; poor pay or insufficient hours; and temporary work, insecurity, and the risk of redundancy or job loss. People in more disadvantaged socioeconomic groups are at higher risk of unemployment and, if employed, of poor working conditions.
Whilst there are some differing views on what makes a good job, features commonly associated with good jobs include: adequate pay; protection from physical hazards; job security and skills training with potential for progression; a good work-life balance and the ability for workers to participate in organisational decision-making. Skilled work typically has more protective elements and less health-adverse conditions.
Below you can find a number of documents identifying the local population needs. Please note that this list will be updated as and when the new information becomes available.
Hackney and the City of London reports
Other local strategies and plans
- Hackney’s Inclusive Economy Strategy
- Hackney’s Poverty Reduction Framework
- Hackney 2022-26 Health and Wellbeing Strategy
- Hackney’s Local Plan
- Hackney Area Action Plans
- Health Equity in England: The Marmot Review 10 Years On – The Health Foundation (February 2020)
- The NHS as an anchor institution – The Health Foundation
- Local Action on Health Inequalities: Promoting Good Quality Jobs to Reduce Health Inequalities – Institute of Health Equity
- What is the Mayor’s Good Work Standard? – London Assembly
- Inclusive economies and healthy futures: Supporting place-based action to reduce health inequalities – Local Government Association (7 December 2021)